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Arroniz-Crespo, M., Perez-Ortega, S., De los Rios, A., Green, T.G.A., Ochoa-Hueso, R., Angel Casermeiro, M., Teresa de la Cruz, M., Pintado, A., Palacios, D., Rozzi, R., Tysklind, N. and Sancho, L.G. Bryophyte-Cyanobacteria Associations during Primary Succession in
Recently Deglaciated Areas of Tierra del Fuego (Chile)
2014 PLOS ONE
Vol. 9(5) 
article DOI  
Abstract: Bryophyte establishment represents a positive feedback process that
enhances soil development in newly exposed terrain. Further, biological
nitrogen (N) fixation by cyanobacteria in association with mosses can be
an important supply of N to terrestrial ecosystems, however the role of
these associations during post-glacial primary succession is not yet
fully understood. Here, we analyzed chronosequences in front of two
receding glaciers with contrasting climatic conditions (wetter vs drier)
at Cordillera Darwin (Tierra del Fuego) and found that most mosses had
the capacity to support an epiphytic flora of cyanobacteria and
exhibited high rates of N2 fixation. Pioneer moss-cyanobacteria
associations showed the highest N-2 fixation rates (4.60 and 4.96 mu g N
g(-1) bryo. d(-1)) very early after glacier retreat (4 and 7 years)
which may help accelerate soil development under wetter conditions. In
drier climate, N-2 fixation on bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations was
also high (0.94 and 1.42 mu g N g(-1) bryo. d(-1)) but peaked at
intermediate-aged sites (26 and 66 years). N-2 fixation capacity on
bryophytes was primarily driven by epiphytic cyanobacteria abundance
rather than community composition. Most liverworts showed low
colonization and N-2 fixation rates, and mosses did not exhibit
consistent differences across life forms and habitat (saxicolous vs
terricolous). We also found a clear relationship between cyanobacteria
genera and the stages of ecological succession, but no relationship was
found with host species identity. Glacier forelands in Tierra del Fuego
show fast rates of soil transformation which imply large quantities of N
inputs. Our results highlight the potential contribution of
bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations to N accumulation during
post-glacial primary succession and further describe the factors that
drive N-2-fixation rates in post-glacial areas with very low N
deposition.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000336653300011,
  author = {Arroniz-Crespo, Maria and Perez-Ortega, Sergio and De los Rios, Asuncion
and Green, T. G. Allan and Ochoa-Hueso, Raul and Angel Casermeiro,
Miguel and Teresa de la Cruz, Maria and Pintado, Ana and Palacios, David
and Rozzi, Ricardo and Tysklind, Niklas and Sancho, Leopoldo G.}, title = {Bryophyte-Cyanobacteria Associations during Primary Succession in
Recently Deglaciated Areas of Tierra del Fuego (Chile)}, journal = {PLOS ONE}, year = {2014}, volume = {9}, number = {5}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096081} }
Atala, C., Schneider, C., Bravo, G., Quilodran, M. and Vargas, R. Anatomical, physiological and chemical differences between populations
of Pseudocyphellaria flavicans (Hook. f. & Taylor) Vain. from Chile
2015 GAYANA BOTANICA
Vol. 72(1), pp. 21-26 
article DOI  
Abstract: Environmental conditions can affect lichen morphology, physiology and
chemistry. Some functional traits; like thickness of thallus layers,
photosystems condition, and presence of photoprotective and antioxidant
compounds are key to colonizing new sites, and can change depending on
light and moisture availability. In the present study, we compared the
morphology, physiology and chemistry of the native Chilean lichen
Pseudocyphellaria flavicans from two Coastal populations (Nahuelbuta and
Contulmo, Araucania district), and one Andean population (Ralco, Bio-Bio
district). Ralco is a more closed secondary forest, and can show dryer
periods compared to Nahuelbuta and Contulmo. We found differences in
thalli anatomy between populations. Ralco individuals had thinner upper
cortex than Nahuelbuta individuals. Contulmo individuals had similar
upper cortex thickness compared to the other two populations. We also
found differences in the response of the maximal efficiency of the PSII
(Fv/Fm) to desiccation and in the in situ values measured. We did not
find differences between populations in the chemical traits. The
differences between populations could be attributed to differences in
local environmental conditions, namely moisture and light.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000357967900003,
  author = {Atala, Cristian and Schneider, Carlos and Bravo, Gabriel and Quilodran,
Manuel and Vargas, Reinaldo}, title = {Anatomical, physiological and chemical differences between populations
of Pseudocyphellaria flavicans (Hook. f. & Taylor) Vain. from Chile}, journal = {GAYANA BOTANICA}, year = {2015}, volume = {72}, number = {1}, pages = {21-26}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-66432015000100003} }
Cornelius, C. SPATIAL VARIATION IN NEST-SITE SELECTION BY A SECONDARY CAVITY-NESTING
BIRD IN A HUMAN-ALTERED LANDSCAPE
2008 CONDOR
Vol. 110(4), pp. 615-626 
article DOI  
Abstract: Characteristics of successful vs. unsuccessful nest sites are likely to
vary over time and space in response to habitat changes. I used the
Thorn-tailed Rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda, Furnariidae),
acavity-nesting species endemic to the temperate rainforest of southern
South America, as a model species to determine if territory use and
nest-tree selection, and associated consequences for fitness, varied
spatially in response to human-driven habitat changes. I established two
10 ha plots in each of three forest habitats that differed in structure
and isolation: connected old-growth forest, connected logged forest, and
isolated logged fragments. Characteristics of trees used for nesting
varied among forest types, but nest success did not. In connected
forests (old-growth and logged forest), snags were used more often than
expected based on their availability. Nest survival models identified
type of tree (snag vs. live tree) and epiphyte cover of trees as the
variables with the strongest effects on daily nest survival. Nests in
snags and with less epiphyte cover were more successful than nests in
live trees. These results support an adaptive nest-site choice in this
species. In isolated logged fragments, use of nest trees was
proportional to availability, with smaller trees and different tree
species used for nesting, suggesting behavioral plasticity in nest-site
selection. Territories were similar among forest types and were
characterized by a dense understory and more large trees and snags than
unused areas. This study provides evidence for consistent territory use
but spatially variable nest-tree selection in response to ecological
gradients produced by human activities.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000262385600002,
  author = {Cornelius, Cintia},
  title = {SPATIAL VARIATION IN NEST-SITE SELECTION BY A SECONDARY CAVITY-NESTING
BIRD IN A HUMAN-ALTERED LANDSCAPE}, journal = {CONDOR}, year = {2008}, volume = {110}, number = {4}, pages = {615-626}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/cond.2008.8608} }
Del Val, E. and Dirzo, R. Myrmecophily: Plants with their own army 2004 INTERCIENCIA
Vol. 29(12), pp. 673+ 
article  
Abstract: Myrmecophily, the occurrence of mutualistic interactions between ants
and plants, is a fascinating subject that has attracted the interest of
naturalists and ecologists for a long time. Although myrmecophily
includes a diverse array of interactions, such as the development of
epiphytic gardens by ants and seed dispersal by ants, it is
traditionally associated to-anti-herbivore defensive interactions by
ants, guarding animals which are in turn rewarded by plants via the
production of food and housing structures. In this paper a brief
historical analysis of this field of study is presented and the
adaptations of plants to maintain the myrmecophytic interaction are
discussed. In addition, an analysis is made of the available literature
on the subject, from which the geographic, taxonomic and ecological
distribution of myrmecophily is discussed. Such analysis reveals that
this interaction is predominant in the tropics, but particularly in the
neotropics; that it is represented in a wide variety of plant lineages
and that myrmecophytes are predominantly, though not exclusively,
species of rapid growth rates, associated to habitats of high light
availability. Throughout the text some of the promissory directions in
the study of myrmecophily are highlighted and the opportunities that
this field of enquiry offers to study the evolution of plant traits that
are influenced by animals, and vice versa, are discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000226353300004,
  author = {Del Val, E and Dirzo, R},
  title = {Myrmecophily: Plants with their own army},
  journal = {INTERCIENCIA},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {29},
  number = {12},
  pages = {673+}
}
Diaz, I.A., Correa, C., Pena-Foxon, M.E., Mendez, M.A. and Charrier, A. First record on an amphibian in the canopy of temperate rainforests of
southern South America: Eupsophus calcaratus (Cycloramphidae)
2010 BOSQUE
Vol. 31(2), pp. 165-168 
article DOI  
Abstract: We record for the first time arboreal habits in amphibians from the
temperate rainforests of southern South America. In April 2006 we
collected an individual of Eupsophus calcaratus at 16 m height, in a
large Eucryphia cordifolia tree of old-growth forest of Chiloe Island,
southern Chile. This species was considered until now as a terrestrial
species, and the similarities between forest ground and epiphytic layer
may allow this species inhabit the canopy. However, the level of
association among these frogs and the forest canopy is unknown. The
canopy of southern South America forests remains barely known, and as
other forest canopies, may support high species diversity.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000283758100010,
  author = {Diaz, Ivan A. and Correa, Claudio and Pena-Foxon, Maurice E. and Mendez,
Marco A. and Charrier, Andres}, title = {First record on an amphibian in the canopy of temperate rainforests of
southern South America: Eupsophus calcaratus (Cycloramphidae)}, journal = {BOSQUE}, year = {2010}, volume = {31}, number = {2}, pages = {165-168}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-92002010000200010} }
Diaz, I.A., Sieving, K.E., Pena-Foxon, M. and Armesto, J.J. A field experiment links forest structure and biodiversity: epiphytes
enhance canopy invertebrates in Chilean forests
2012 ECOSPHERE
Vol. 3(1) 
article DOI  
Abstract: Epiphytes represent a conspicuous component of the canopy of old-growth
forests, reaching biomass values of up to 44 t/ha. Forest epiphytes host
a rich invertebrate community; however, the contribution of epiphytes to
the richness and abundance of canopy invertebrates is still quite
unknown, and has not been experimentally assessed in old-growth forests.
We studied the contribution of epiphyte loads to invertebrate species
composition and abundance in the crown of large old individual trees of
Eucryphia cordifolia (Cunoniaceae) in old-growth forests from southern
Chile. We accessed the canopy using arborist techniques and contrasted
the invertebrate species richness and biomass inhabiting four large
canopy trees (25-30 m high, 1.2 m DBH), two of them with intact
epiphytes and two trees from which epiphytes were manually removed. For
over a year (April, 2006 to May, 2007) we made monthly collections of
invertebrates from each tree's crown using flight-interception and
eclector traps (the latter designed to capture walking invertebrates
from trunks and limbs). Once every season we collected samples of
epiphytes and their soil to quantify invertebrates using Berlese
funnels. We found significantly greater invertebrate species richness
and abundance in the control trees' crowns (with epiphytes) compared to
the trees from which epiphytes were removed. Predators (such as spiders
and centipedes) were disproportionately more abundant on trees with
epiphytes, and an entire functional group (detritivores), associated
with arboreal soils under the epiphytes, was absent in the trees from
which epiphytes were removed. Invertebrate abundances were lower in
winter and higher in summer for trees with epiphytes, while for trees
without epiphytes invertebrate numbers fluctuated markedly, but with no
seasonal pattern. We show that large old trees are an important
structural component in forests, supporting additional structure
represented by the epiphyte load, which, in turn, sustains a rich
community of invertebrates with functional groups not otherwise present
in the forest canopy. Our findings strongly recommend that forest
managers retain large old trees with their epiphytes in order to sustain
biodiversity and important ecosystem processes.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000327298400005,
  author = {Diaz, I. A. and Sieving, K. E. and Pena-Foxon, M. and Armesto, J. J.},
  title = {A field experiment links forest structure and biodiversity: epiphytes
enhance canopy invertebrates in Chilean forests}, journal = {ECOSPHERE}, year = {2012}, volume = {3}, number = {1}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/ES11-00168.1} }
Diaz, I.A., Sieving, K.E., Pena-Foxon, M.E., Larrain, J. and Armesto, J.J. Epiphyte diversity and biomass loads of canopy emergent trees in Chilean
temperate rain forests: A neglected functional component
2010 FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
Vol. 259(8), pp. 1490-1501 
article DOI  
Abstract: We document for the first time the epiphytic composition and biomass of
canopy emergent trees from temperate, old-growth coastal rainforests of
Chile (42 degrees 30'S). Through tree-climbing techniques, we accessed
the crown of two large (c. 1 m trunk diameter, 25-30 m tall) individuals
of Eucryphia cordifolia (Cunoniaceae) and one large Aextoxicon punctatum
(Aextoxicaceae) to sample all epiphytes from the base to the treetop.
Epiphytes, with the exception of the hemi-epiphytic tree Raukaua
laetevirens (Araliaceae), were removed, weighed and subsamples dried to
estimate total dry mass. We recorded 22 species of vascular epiphytes,
and 22 genera of cryptogams, with at least 30 species of bryophytes,
liverworts and lichens. The dominant vascular epiphytes were
Fascicularia bicolor (Bromeliaceae), Raukaua laetevirens, Sarmienta
repens (Gesneriaceae), and filmy ferns (Hymenophyllaceae). Epiphyte
loads per tree ranged between 134 and 144 kg dry mass, with 60-70br> water. The hemi-epiphytic tree R. laetevirens added between 1 and 2.6 t
of dry mass to each host tree. A main component of epiphyte biomass,
making 70% of the weight, was detritus and roots, while leaves, stems,
and fronds made up the remaining 30 Emergent trees hold a high
proportion of the regional diversity of epiphytes: 33% of all flowering
epiphytes, and 50% of all filmy ferns described for Chilean temperate
forests. Dry epiphyte biomass associated only with the emergent E.
cordifolia trees in coastal forests was estimated in 10 t/ha. Epiphyte
biomass may store up to 3001 of water in each emergent tree, and add
40-150% of photosynthetic biomass to the tree crowns. Based on this
evidence, epiphytes may play key but generally neglected roles in
ecosystem carbon uptake, water storage, and nutrient cycling. Moreover,
emergent trees represent nuclei of biodiversity and ecosystem functions
distributed throughout mature forests. Forest management should
recognize large trees as significant management units for the
preservation of biodiversity and ecological functions. (C) 2010 Elsevier
B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000276292900016,
  author = {Diaz, Ivan A. and Sieving, Kathryn E. and Pena-Foxon, Maurice E. and
Larrain, Juan and Armesto, Juan J.}, title = {Epiphyte diversity and biomass loads of canopy emergent trees in Chilean
temperate rain forests: A neglected functional component}, journal = {FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT}, year = {2010}, volume = {259}, number = {8}, pages = {1490-1501}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2010.01.025} }
Diaz, I., Papic, C. and Armesto, J. An assessment of post-dispersal seed predation in temperate rain forest
fragments in Chiloe Island, Chile
1999 OIKOS
Vol. 87(2), pp. 228-238 
article DOI  
Abstract: Seeds of seven tree species. sis shrub species, and one epiphyte were
tested for their rates of removal by seed predators in two remnant
patches (15-20 ha) of old-growth temperate forest in Chiloe Island,
southern Chile (47 degrees 30'S). Field assays were aimed at assessing
the rates of post-dispersal seed consumption, mainly by rodents and
understory birds. Assays were conducted in summer and early fall of 1996
and 1997. We investigated whether seed consumption differed among
habitats, between seasons and among species differing in seed mass and
abundance in the canopy of remnant parches. Trays containing 20 seeds
each, 6 8 replicate trays per species and habitat, were placed in the
forest floor in each of three habitats: forest edges adjacent to
pastures, forest interior (100 m away from any edge), and inside canopy
gaps formed by tree falls. Overall, 7-65% of the seeds in experimental
trays were removed by predators from 43 to 93% of all the trays within
five days. Removal rates increased from mid-summer to tarry fall,
presumably as a result of increasing density of birds and rodents. When
seed removal rates differed among habitats. more seeds were taken from
trays placed in forest interior than under canopy gaps. Forest margins
had intermediate rates of seed removal. Marked differences in seed
removal rates observed among species were unrelated to seed mass or
plant species abundance. We conclude that season and habitat are the
most important variables determining the intensity of seed predation in
forest fragments. Seed predation rates recorded in live-day assays
suggest that the regeneration of woody species, particularly in forest
interior, may be affected by post-dispersal seed consumption by
vertebrates.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000084048400003,
  author = {Diaz, I and Papic, C and Armesto, JJ},
  title = {An assessment of post-dispersal seed predation in temperate rain forest
fragments in Chiloe Island, Chile}, journal = {OIKOS}, year = {1999}, volume = {87}, number = {2}, pages = {228-238}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3546738} }
Ely, F., Torres, F., Rada, F. and Leon, Y. Morpho-anatomical study of two tropical cloud forest orchids 2007 INTERCIENCIA
Vol. 32(6), pp. 410-418 
article  
Abstract: The morpho-anatomical vegetative structure and water-storing strategies
of two orchids of the Venezuelan Cloud Forests, Pleurothallis cardiantha
and Maxillaria miniata, are described for the first time. Field work was
conducted in a relatively preserved Cloud Forest and a secondary forest
of the Botanical Garden of the Universidad de los Andes, Venezuela,
located in the same vicinity. Botanical specimens were stored in FAA and
submitted to standard plant anatomy microtechnique procedures, including
SEM. Monthly leaf-water potentials were recorded during 2004-2005 in
order to determine whether these species behave as typical CAM,
facultative CAM or C, species. Both exhibit xeromorphic characters in
their vegetative organs. M. mineata presents pseudobulbs as main water
storing structures, thin cartaceous leaves, epidermal and
sclerenchymatic tissues associated with siliceous crystals, adaxial
hypodermis double layered, single-layered abaxial hypodermis, homogenous
mesophyll with well developed collateral bundles, and abundant
sclerenchyma. P. cardiantha, in contrast, presents moderately succulent
to coriaceous leaves, adaxial epidermal cell forming papillae,
heterogenous mesophyll with poorly developed vascular bundles. The
water-storing tissues in this species involve the adaxial and abaxial
hypodermis, as well as the acuiferous idioblasts located in the spongy
parenchyma. The leaf water-potentials registered were high and remained
practically invariable during the year, which suggests a typical CAM
metabolism in both cases.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000247643400008,
  author = {Ely, Francisca and Torres, Fresia and Rada, Fermin and Leon, Yelitza},
  title = {Morpho-anatomical study of two tropical cloud forest orchids},
  journal = {INTERCIENCIA},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {32},
  number = {6},
  pages = {410-418}
}
Fernanda Salinas, M., Arroyo, M.T.K. and Armesto, J.J. EPIPHYTIC GROWTH HABITS OF CHILEAN GESNERIACEAE AND THE EVOLUTION OF
EPIPHYTES WITHIN THE TRIBE CORONANTHEREAE
2010 ANNALS OF THE MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN
Vol. 97(1), pp. 117-127 
article DOI  
Abstract: Three monotypic and endemic genera of epiphytic Gesneriaceae
(Gesnerioideae, Coronanthereae) occur in temperate rainforests of
southern South America. In this article, intraspecific differences in
rooted substrate and interspecific variation in epiphytic growth habits
among these three Gesneriaceae species were assessed. The presence or
absence of plants on the ground and main rooted substrate when growing
epiphytically on trees were used to characterize epiphytic growth habits
in two old-growth temperate rainforests of northern Chiloe Island (42
degrees 30'S) in Chile. An evolutionary interpretation based on reported
phylogenies and morphologies within the Coronanthereae is proposed. Two
species of Chilean Gesneriaceae, Mitraria coccinea Car, and Astemnthera
ovata (Cav.) Hanst., originate from the forest floor, then climb on
trees while maintaining their main roots in the ground, and are
classified as secondary hemiepiphytes. The third species, Sarmienta
renews Ruiz & Priv., was found exclusively on tree trunks and branches
of living and dead trees and thus may be classified as a holoepiphyte.
Based on reported phylogenies and biogeographical, ecological, and
morphological data, the mechanically independent arboreal habit appears
to be the ancestral condition in the Coronanthereae, which in turn gave
rise to the climbing habit and finally the holoepiphytic habit. This may
be a common evolutionary pathway toward holoepiphytism within other
lineages in the Gesneriaceae.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000276415200006,
  author = {Fernanda Salinas, M. and Arroyo, Mary T. K. and Armesto, Juan J.},
  title = {EPIPHYTIC GROWTH HABITS OF CHILEAN GESNERIACEAE AND THE EVOLUTION OF
EPIPHYTES WITHIN THE TRIBE CORONANTHEREAE}, journal = {ANNALS OF THE MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN}, year = {2010}, volume = {97}, number = {1}, pages = {117-127}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3417/2006210} }
Fernandez, R., Moreno-Chacon, M., Canessa, R., Mardones, D., Viveros, N. and Saldana, A. Relationship between ecological breadth of vascular epiphytes and their
ecophysiological responses to light availability and moisture in the
Sclerophyllous Mediterranean Coastal Forest of Chile
2016 GAYANA BOTANICA
Vol. 73(1), pp. 68-76 
article DOI  
Abstract: Epiphytic microhabitat is exposed to microclimatic variations due to the
local climate, forest structure and its dynamics. Consequently, the
establishment, development and ecological breadth of epiphytes species
depend on the ability to modify their physiology, morphology and
phenology facing environmental restrictions. In this study the
differences in ecological breadth of vascular epiphytes in relation with
light availability and soil moisture are decribed in a relict stand of
Mediterranean Coastal Sclerophyllous Forest located in Peninsula de
Hualpen, Biobio Region (36 degrees 47'S y 73 degrees 10'S). We
quantified the field distribution of each epiphyte species along these
two gradients. We measured in situ variation in leaf relative water
content (RWC), leaf chlorophyll content (Chl), and specific leaf mass
(LMA). Seven vascular epiphytes species (two Angiosperms and five
Pteridophytes) were found and some of them showed clear differences in
their ecological breadth in both environmental gradients. Sarmienta
scandens (Gesneriaceae), Asplenium trilobum (Aspleniaceae) and
Pleopeltis macrocarpa (Polypodiaceae) were the most abundant species and
they also showed higher ecological breadth both in the light and soil
moisture gradients. For these species the change in Chl could be an
important mechanism for acclimation under variation of the moisture
conditions. Finally, although no relation between the ecological breadth
in the light gradient and the leaf traits was found, our results suggest
that the species composition is related to the light availability in the
host trees.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000383443500009,
  author = {Fernandez, Rocio and Moreno-Chacon, Maria and Canessa, Rafaella and
Mardones, Daniela and Viveros, Nataly and Saldana, Alfredo}, title = {Relationship between ecological breadth of vascular epiphytes and their
ecophysiological responses to light availability and moisture in the
Sclerophyllous Mediterranean Coastal Forest of Chile}, journal = {GAYANA BOTANICA}, year = {2016}, volume = {73}, number = {1}, pages = {68-76}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-66432016000100009} }
Figueroa, J. and Armesto, J. Community-wide germination strategies in a temperate rainforest of
Southern Chile: ecological and evolutionary correlates
2001 AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY
Vol. 49(4), pp. 411-425 
article DOI  
Abstract: Delayed seed germination ('dispersal in time'), as a component of a
plant's germination strategy, was studied in dicotyledoneous species of
a temperate rainforest flora in Chiloe Island (42 degrees 30' S),
southern Chile. The objective of this investigation was to assess, for
this temperate rainforest flora, what proportion of interspecific
variation in the time of seed germination-measured in days since the
onset of seed dispersal in space-could be attributed to the plants'
historical and phylogenetic background and what proportion was
associated with life history and ecological attributes such as seed
mass, life form, dispersal syndromes and dispersal periods. To
characterise germination times for 44 species from Chiloe forests (n =
150 seeds sowed per species in laboratory assays), we computed the mean
germination time (GT), in days since sowing, for all seeds germinated of
each species. Seeds were taken from the plants at the onset of dispersal
and germinated in Petri dishes at 10/20 degrees C. Considering all
species, GTs varied between 3 and 385 days and presented an L-shaped
frequency distribution. One-way ANOVAs measured the effects of each
factor across all other variables. Two-way ANOVAs were used to assess
significant interactions between factors. Multifactorial ANOVAs were
used to evaluate the independent effects of each of six historical,
phylogenetic and ecological factors on GT and to detect associations
between factors. In one-way ANOVAs, phylogenetic grouping (at or above
order) explained 12% of the variance in GT; dispersal period (summer v.
mainly autumn dissemination of ripe seeds), biogeographic element
(endemic, austral, neotropical or cosmopolitan) and dispersal syndrome
(fleshy v. dry propagules) explained 7, 6 and 5% of the variance in GT,
respectively. The factors life form (trees, shrub and woody vines
combined, herbs and non-woody epiphytes) and seed mass (light v. heavy)
explained the 4 and 2% of the variance in GT, respectively. Taxa
related to Ranunculales presented the longest mean GT (148 days).
Endozoochorous species had a more delayed germination than species with
other dispersal syndromes. Herbs and non-woody epiphyte species showed
mean GT (41 days) significantly shorter than trees and shrubs plus woody
vines combined (86 and 85 days, respectively). All interactions in
two-way ANOVAs were significant. Multifactorial ANOVAs revealed that the
three major factors contributing to differences in GT in this temperate
rainforest flora were phylogenetic relatedness, dispersal syndromes and
life form (7, 6 and 6% of the interspecific variation, respectively).
In this analysis, biogeographic element, dispersal period and seed mass
were not significantly related to GT. For the factors examined,
failure-time analysis, which takes into account all viable seeds not
germinating in laboratory assays, confirmed results from multifactorial
ANOVAs.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000170204900001,
  author = {Figueroa, JA and Armesto, JJ},
  title = {Community-wide germination strategies in a temperate rainforest of
Southern Chile: ecological and evolutionary correlates}, journal = {AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY}, year = {2001}, volume = {49}, number = {4}, pages = {411-425}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/BT00013} }
Gatica, A., Pereira, I. and Vallejos, O. Epiphytic lichens: a tool for to study the ecological continuity Mocha
Island, Chile
2011 GAYANA BOTANICA
Vol. 68(2), pp. 226-235 
article DOI  
Abstract: The purpose of this work was to study the ecological continuity Mocha
Island National Reserve, through the knowledge of the richness and
frequency of epiphytic lichens in 14 plots distributed at random within
the reserve. The tree biomass and upper-stem volume were quantified for
to establish correlations that may explain the distribution of epiphytic
lichens. It proposes a new index of ecological continuity with
cyanolichens (ICEC) for to establish the degree of alteration of this
natural ecosystem. The total richness of lichenized fungi was 33
species, 3 of which are new records for Chile: Fissurina triticea;
Pyrenula neglecta and Stick, subcaperata. A statistically significant
relationship was founded between cyanolichens and upper-stem volume,
which could indicate preference of this type of lichens by forest
ecosystem with a large upper-stem volume. In basis of the ICEC proposed
in this work, Mocha Island National Reserve is defined as an altered
ecosystem.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000298024100014,
  author = {Gatica, Alejandro and Pereira, Iris and Vallejos, Oscar},
  title = {Epiphytic lichens: a tool for to study the ecological continuity Mocha
Island, Chile}, journal = {GAYANA BOTANICA}, year = {2011}, volume = {68}, number = {2}, pages = {226-235}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-66432011000200014} }
Godoy, O. and Gianoli, E. Functional variation of leaf succulence in a cold rainforest epiphyte 2013 PLANT ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION
Vol. 146(2), pp. 167-172 
article DOI  
Abstract: Background and aims - Succulence, a common attribute of floras in dry
regions and of species living in microenvironments with transient water
shortage, has been typically viewed as an adaptive plant feature for
surviving in (semi-)arid conditions. The existence of leaf succulence in
a temperate cold rainforest challenges the view of its adaptive value.
We studied leaf functional variation in Sarmienta repens Ruiz & Pav.
(Gesneriaceae), an epiphyte living in the Valdivian forest of southern
Chile.
Material and methods - We measured leaf thickness, absolute leaf water
content, specific leaf area and leaf anatomy (epidermis, palisade
parenchyma, and spongy parenchyma) in two distinct light
microenvironments: shaded understory versus border of canopy gaps. We
also characterized micro-environmental conditions in terms of light
availability, temperature and water evaporation.
Key results - We show that leaves from sun conditions, the environment
with higher water demand, have lower SLA (specific leaf area), thicker
epidermis and store more water due to a thicker spongy parenchyma, than
leaves from shade conditions.
Conclusions - We found high phenotypic variation in S. repens at
intraspecific level in response to contrasting environmental conditions.
This variation reflects a two-fold strategy common in epiphytes:
increase water storage and reduce water loss. Furthermore, it suggests
that leaf succulence has an adaptive value even in a temperate cold
rainforest. We discuss that the occurrence of succulence on a cold
rainforest might be explained by a combination of ecological,
biogeographic and phylogenetic factors.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000321680200003,
  author = {Godoy, Oscar and Gianoli, Ernesto},
  title = {Functional variation of leaf succulence in a cold rainforest epiphyte},
  journal = {PLANT ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {146},
  number = {2},
  pages = {167-172},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5091/plecevo.2013.800}
}
Godoy, R., Oyarzun, C. and Gerding, V. Precipitation chemistry in deciduous and evergreen Nothofagus forests of
southern Chile under a low-deposition climate
2001 BASIC AND APPLIED ECOLOGY
Vol. 2(1), pp. 65-72 
article DOI  
Abstract: The chemistry of rainfall and its redistribution were studied during the
periods July 1997-December 1998 in a Nothofagus pumilio (summergreen)
forest and in April 1999-March 2000 in a Nothofagus betuloides
(evergreen) forest in two experimental microcatchments, located in the
Puyehue National Park, southern Chile (41 degreesS). Annual
precipitation varied from 5406 to 6559 mm during the studied periods,
with about 68-80% as rain and 32-20% as snowfall. The average pH of
bulk precipitation was 5.7. In the N. pumilio forest, the pH of
throughfall, stemflow and effective precipitation was 5.7. In the
infiltrating water it increased to 5.9 and in the runoff to 7.0. In the
N. betuloides forest, the pH value of the precipitation was 6.1 and
showed a slight increase in throughfall and soil water to 6.2 and in
runoff to 6.5. NO3-N concentrations increased inside of both forests,
especially in stemflow, suggesting biological N fixation in the canopy
due to the presence of epiphytic lichens of the genera Peltigera,
Pseudocyphellaria and Sticta living on the trunks, but decreased in the
runoff. NH4-N concentrations decreased in all compartments inside the
forests, especially in runoff water, compared with bulk precipitation.
Concentrations of K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were higher in throughfall,
stemflow and soil solution than in the bulk precipitation. The runoff
water both of the N. pumilio and the N. betuloides forest was enriched
with cations, especially with Ca2+ and Mg2+, indicating active
weathering processes. The input of inorganic nitrogen (NO3-N + NH4-N)
via precipitation amounted 3.3 kg ha(-1)yr(-1) in the studied area,
suggesting some anthropogenic contribution from the agricultural
activities in the Central Valley and pointing at high levels of rainfall
in the Cordillera de los Andes of southern Chile. The water chemistry
data are compared with corresponding data from European and North
American forests with a particular emphasis on nitrogen deposition.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000171075600008,
  author = {Godoy, R and Oyarzun, C and Gerding, V},
  title = {Precipitation chemistry in deciduous and evergreen Nothofagus forests of
southern Chile under a low-deposition climate}, journal = {BASIC AND APPLIED ECOLOGY}, year = {2001}, volume = {2}, number = {1}, pages = {65-72}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1078/1439-1791-00037} }
Gonzalez, A.L., Miguel Farina, J., Pinto, R., Perez, C., Weathers, K.C., Armesto, J.J. and Marquet, P.A. Bromeliad growth and stoichiometry: responses to atmospheric nutrient
supply in fog-dependent ecosystems of the hyper-arid Atacama Desert,
Chile
2011 OECOLOGIA
Vol. 167(3), pp. 835-845 
article DOI  
Abstract: Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus (C, N, P) stoichiometry influences the
growth of plants and nutrient cycling within ecosystems. Indeed,
elemental ratios are used as an index for functional differences between
plants and their responses to natural or anthropogenic variations in
nutrient supply. We investigated the variation in growth and elemental
content of the rootless terrestrial bromeliad Tillandsia landbeckii,
which obtains its moisture, and likely its nutrients, from coastal fogs
in the Atacama Desert. We assessed (1) how fog nutrient supply
influences plant growth and stoichiometry and (2) the response of plant
growth and stoichiometry to variations in nutrient supply by using
reciprocal transplants. We hypothesized that T. landbeckii should
exhibit physiological and biochemical plastic responses commensurate
with nutrient supply from atmospheric deposition. In the case of the
Atacama Desert, nutrient supply from fog is variable over space and
time, which suggests a relatively high variation in the growth and
elemental content of atmospheric bromeliads. We found that the nutrient
content of T. landbeckii showed high spatio-temporal variability, driven
partially by fog nutrient deposition but also by plant growth rates.
Reciprocal transplant experiments showed that transplanted individuals
converged to similar nutrient content, growth rates, and leaf production
of resident plants at each site, reflecting local nutrient availability.
Although plant nutrient content did not exactly match the relative
supply of N and P, our results suggest that atmospheric nutrient supply
is a dominant driver of plant growth and stoichiometry. In fact, our
results indicate that N uptake by T. landbeckii plants depends more on N
supplied by fog, whereas P uptake is mainly regulated by within-plant
nutrient demand for growth. Overall, these findings indicate that
variation in fog nutrient supply exerts a strong control over growth and
nutrient dynamics of atmospheric plants, which are ubiquitous across
fog-dominated ecosystems.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000295984800022,
  author = {Gonzalez, Angelica L. and Miguel Farina, Jose and Pinto, Raquel and
Perez, Cecilia and Weathers, Kathleen C. and Armesto, Juan J. and
Marquet, Pablo A.}, title = {Bromeliad growth and stoichiometry: responses to atmospheric nutrient
supply in fog-dependent ecosystems of the hyper-arid Atacama Desert,
Chile}, journal = {OECOLOGIA}, year = {2011}, volume = {167}, number = {3}, pages = {835-845}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-011-2032-y} }
Gradstein, S.R. and Cuvertino, J. Observations on the liverwort flora of the surroundings of Santiago,
Central Chile
2015 CRYPTOGAMIE BRYOLOGIE
Vol. 36(2), pp. 129-141 
article DOI  
Abstract: The Mediterranean liverwort flora of the surroundings of Santiago,
Central Chile, has been little studied. This paper reports 21 species
from the area, including one species new to Central Chile (Cephaloziella
divaricata), 9 new to the Metropolitan region (Cephaloziella divaricata,
Clevea spathysii, Fossombronia sp., Frullania pluricarinata, Lejeunea
globosiflora, Leptoscyphus expansus, Lethocolea radicosa, Riccardia sp.,
Targionia hypophylla) and 6 new to Quillota province (Clasmatocolea
vermicularis, Clevea spathysii, Gongylanthus dusenii, Lethocolea
radicosa, Lunularia cruciata, Symphyogyna circinata). Taxonomic notes
are provided on selected species of particular interest. Most of the
species grow terrestrially; Frullania pluricarinata and Lejeunea
globosiflora occur epiphytic on bark in dry Mediterranean forest. Riccia
is the most species-rich genus in the area. Three Riccia species, R.
crystallina, R. nigrella and R. trichocarpa, have characteristic
disjunct ranges, occurring in Mediterranean and subtropical regions of
the northern and southern hemisphere but not in the Tropics. Oil bodies
are newly reported for the endemic Gongylanthus dusenii and Lejeunea
globosiflora; the latter species is fully described and illustrated for
the first time.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000354226300005,
  author = {Gradstein, S. Robbert and Cuvertino, Jorge},
  title = {Observations on the liverwort flora of the surroundings of Santiago,
Central Chile}, journal = {CRYPTOGAMIE BRYOLOGIE}, year = {2015}, volume = {36}, number = {2}, pages = {129-141}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.7872/cryb.v36.iss2.2015.129} }
Guzman-Marin, R. and Saldana, A. Contribution of accidental epiphytism to the vascular plants
distribution in a southern temperate rainforest
2017 GAYANA BOTANICA
Vol. 74(1), pp. 226-228 
article  
Abstract: In a Valdivian forest stand, we identified vascular plant species
occurring as accidental epiphytes, and we determined the contribution of
accidental epiphytism on their local abundance. Four species were found
as accidental epiphytes, being the fern Blechnum mochaenum the species
showing the higher abundance proportion as accidental epiphyte (40 .
Unexpectedly, individuals of this species occurring as accidental
epiphytes did not differ in functional traits related to nutrient
availability (LMA-leaf mass ratio-and leaf C/N ratio) from those that
usually occur on the forest ground. As a shade tolerant and slow growing
species, B. mochaenum apparently is not affected by the environmental
restrictions of the epiphytic habitat.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000424541900020,
  author = {Guzman-Marin, Rosario and Saldana, Alfredo},
  title = {Contribution of accidental epiphytism to the vascular plants
distribution in a southern temperate rainforest}, journal = {GAYANA BOTANICA}, year = {2017}, volume = {74}, number = {1}, pages = {226-228} }
Jose Parra, M., Acuna, K.I., Sierra-Almeida, A., Sanfuentes, C., Saldana, A., Corcuera, L.J. and Bravo, L.A. Photosynthetic Light Responses May Explain Vertical Distribution of
Hymenophyllaceae Species in a Temperate Rainforest of Southern Chile
2015 PLOS ONE
Vol. 10(12) 
article DOI  
Abstract: Some epiphytic Hymenophyllaceae are restricted to lower parts of the
host (<60 cm; 10-100 mu mol photons m(-2) s(-1)) in a secondary forest
of Southern Chile; other species occupy the whole host height (>= 10 m;
max PPFD > 1000 mu mol photons m(-2) s(-1)). Our aim was to study the
photosynthetic light responses of two Hymenophyllaceae species in
relation to their contrasting distribution. We determined light
tolerance of Hymenoglossum cruentum and Hymenophyllum dentatum by
measuring gas exchange, PSI and PSII light energy partitioning, NPQ
components, and pigment contents. H. dentatum showed lower maximum
photosynthesis rates (A(max)) than H. cruentum, but the former species
kept its net rates (A(n)) near A(max) across a wide light range. In
contrast, in the latter one, A(n) declined at PPFDs > 60 mu mol photons
m(-2) s(-1). H. cruentum, the shadiest plant, showed higher chlorophyll
contents than H. dentatum. Differences in energy partitioning at PSI and
PSII were consistent with gas exchange results. H. dentatum exhibited a
higher light compensation point of the partitioning of absorbed energy
between photochemical Y(PSII) and non-photochemical Y(NPQ) processes.
Hence, both species allocated energy mainly toward photochemistry
instead of heat dissipation at their light saturation points. Above
saturation, H. cruentum had higher heat dissipation than H. dentatum.
PSI yield (YPSI) remained higher in H. dentatum than H. cruentum in a
wider light range. In both species, the main cause of heat dissipation
at PSI was a donor side limitation. An early dynamic photo-inhibition of
PSII may have caused an over reduction of the Qa(+) pool decreasing the
efficiency of electron donation to PSI. In H. dentatum, a slight
increase in heat dissipation due to acceptor side limitation of PSI was
observed above 300 mu mol photons m(-2)s(-1). Differences in
photosynthetic responses to light suggest that light tolerance and
species plasticity could explain their contrasting vertical
distribution.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000367092600087,
  author = {Jose Parra, Maria and Acuna, Karina I. and Sierra-Almeida, Angela and
Sanfuentes, Camila and Saldana, Alfredo and Corcuera, Luis J. and Bravo,
Leon A.}, title = {Photosynthetic Light Responses May Explain Vertical Distribution of
Hymenophyllaceae Species in a Temperate Rainforest of Southern Chile}, journal = {PLOS ONE}, year = {2015}, volume = {10}, number = {12}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0145475} }
Jose Parra, M., Rodriguez, R., Cavieres, L., Munoz-Tapia, L. and Atala, C. Latitudinal patterns in Pteridophyte distribution of Continental Chile 2015 GAYANA BOTANICA
Vol. 72(1), pp. 58-69 
article  
Abstract: Chilean vegetation has been described based on dominant trees and
shrubs, giving little attention to less conspicuous plants such as
pteridophytes sensu lato (ferns and lycophytes). These plants have
different ecological demands and reproductive strategies than woody
plants and are excellent tools to recognize vegetation zones. In the
present study we analyze the distributional patterns of the 124
pteridophyte taxa occurring in continental Chile, regarding species
richness and habitat preferences distribution. Using Jaccard's
similarity index and grouping analysis, we obtained 5 pteridophyte zones
that are significantly different from each other. Species richness
distribution showed unimodal pattern with latitude, increasing from 17
degrees S toward south up to a maximal value at 40 S and abruptly
decreasing southward. These patterns are coincident with the habitat
preference where the xerophytic species tend to decrease with latitude.
In contrast, epiphytic pteridophytes increased with latitude, as
temperate forests appear. Terrestrial hygrophytic species were present
in all areas, but showed a southward increase. These distributions
suggest an important role of the precipitation patterns, which is
considered a limiting resource for pteridophytes' life cycle.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000357967900008,
  author = {Jose Parra, Maria and Rodriguez, Roberto and Cavieres, Lohengrin and
Munoz-Tapia, Laureana and Atala, Cristian}, title = {Latitudinal patterns in Pteridophyte distribution of Continental Chile}, journal = {GAYANA BOTANICA}, year = {2015}, volume = {72}, number = {1}, pages = {58-69} }
Mellado-Mansilla, D., Leon, C.A., Ortega-Solis, G., Godoy-Guinao, J., Moreno, R. and Diaz, I.A. Vertical patterns of epiphytic bryophyte diversity in a montane
Nothofagus forest in the Chilean Andes
2017 NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF BOTANY
Vol. 55(4), pp. 514-529 
article DOI  
Abstract: Epiphytic bryophytes are an important component of many forest
ecosystems. Several studies have reported vertical distribution patterns
for this species, finding many taxa growing along the entire vertical
profile of host trees, some in the most exposed upper areas of the
canopies. Many studies in Chilean forests have focused on epiphytes, but
most of them were located in lowland and coastal forests. This study is
the first scientific exploration of the epiphytic communities that
occupy the entire vertical profile of large Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.)
Oerst. trees in a montane Nothofagus forest in the Chilean Andes (39
degrees 25'S). Our goals were (i) to describe the richness of the
epiphytic species inhabiting large N. dombeyi trees, (ii) to evaluate
differences in composition related to the height, azimuth and diameter
of each host tree, and (iii) to explore the distribution of epiphytic
species within the vertical profile of trees. We climbed 10 large N.
dombeyi trees located between 940 and 1190 m in altitude. All epiphytes
were sampled every meter, from the base up to the highest climbable
branch. The epiphytic community was dominated by non-vascular epiphytes,
with 17 taxa, all of which were bryophytes. Frullania rostrata,
Gackstroemia aff. magellanica, Hypnum skottsbergii and Zygodon
penstastichus were the most frequently observed taxa. Species
composition varied with height on the tree, but no differences between
trees were observed. The vertical distribution showed that three taxa
were restricted to the crown, five were abundant throughout the whole
vertical profile and four were restricted to the trunk close to the
ground. The information here could be relevant due to the pressure to
manage these Nothofagus forests, where the associated biodiversity is
not even recorded in forestry inventories.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000416595400010,
  author = {Mellado-Mansilla, Daniela and Leon, Carolina A. and Ortega-Solis,
Gabriel and Godoy-Guinao, Javier and Moreno, Ricardo and Diaz, Ivan A.}, title = {Vertical patterns of epiphytic bryophyte diversity in a montane
Nothofagus forest in the Chilean Andes}, journal = {NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF BOTANY}, year = {2017}, volume = {55}, number = {4}, pages = {514-529}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0028825X.2017.1364273} }
Moreno, J., Merino, S., Vasquez, R. and Armesto, J. Breeding biology of the Thorn-tailed Rayadito (Furnariidae) in
south-temperate rainforests of Chile
2005 CONDOR
Vol. 107(1), pp. 69-77 
article DOI  
Abstract: We conducted a study of the breeding biology of the Thorn-tailed
Rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda) in secondary forests on the continental
island of Chiloe (42degreesS), southern Chile. Rayaditos are small
insectivorous furnariids inhabiting the south-temperate forests of Chile
and Argentina. We followed the reproduction of rayadito pairs breeding
in nest-boxes. Rayaditos build their nests mainly of rhizomes and stems
of epiphytic vines, grasses, and hairs during periods of at least a
week, and show a marked population asynchrony in laying dates of more
than two months (October-December). Rayaditos lay clutches of 3-6 eggs
with a mode of 4 and laying occurs on alternate days. Eggs are 50br> larger and hatchlings are 30% larger than expected from allometric
equations. Most broods hatch synchronously. Nestling growth curves
adjust well to logistic functions and at 2 weeks nestlings attain masses
similar to asymptotic values. Nestling growth, which occurs over 3
weeks, is 27% slower than expected from allometry. Fledglings attain
adult size with respect to tarsus length, but have less developed
plumage and higher body mass than adults. Rayaditos exhibit clutch and
brood reduction, suggesting possible food limitation. The protracted
breeding periods may preclude second breeding attempts for most pairs in
Chiloe. There is evidence for declines in parental quality with season.
The low seasonal fecundity, large eggs, and prolonged dependence periods
of a truly south-temperate species like the Thorn-tailed Rayadito
reflect a `slow' life history similar to that of tropical passerines.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000226960300007,
  author = {Moreno, J and Merino, S and Vasquez, RA and Armesto, JJ},
  title = {Breeding biology of the Thorn-tailed Rayadito (Furnariidae) in
south-temperate rainforests of Chile}, journal = {CONDOR}, year = {2005}, volume = {107}, number = {1}, pages = {69-77}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1650/7602} }
Munoz, A., Chacon, P., Perez, F., Barnert, E. and Armesto, J. Diversity and host tree preferences of vascular epiphytes and vines in a
temperate rainforest in southern Chile
2003 AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY
Vol. 51(4), pp. 381-391 
article DOI  
Abstract: Vines and epiphytes contribute importantly to the biodiversity of
temperate rainforests of southern South America. However, compared with
their tropical counterparts, these functional groups have received less
attention. We evaluated diversity, floristic composition and relative
abundance of vascular epiphytes and vines within a humid temperate
forest in northern Chiloe Island, southern Chile. We assessed whether
epiphyte and vine species exhibit preferences among host tree species
and tested whether species richness on tree hosts differs from that
expected by chance, by comparing observed frequencies of occurrence (FO)
and species richness with randomly simulated frequency distributions
generated under the assumption of no epiphyte preferences. Finally, we
tested for associations of epiphyte and vine species with host tree size
( trunk diameter at breast height). Eleven species of ferns and nine
angiosperms ( seven vines, one epiphytic angiosperm and one shrub) were
recorded growing epiphytically in a sample of 499 trees. The most
abundant species were three vines, Luzuriaga polyphylla (Hook.) Macbr.,
Griselinia racemosa (Phil.) Taub. and Mitraria coccinea Cav., and five
species of filmy ferns (Hymenophyllaceae). Most epiphytes and vines
(65 showed preference for one or two tree species, with seven species
being overrepresented on Podocarpus nubigena Lindl. hosts and 10
underrepresented on Drimys winteri J.R. et G. Forster. Epiphyte and vine
species richness was significantly lower than expected by chance on D.
winteri and higher than expected on Nothofagus nitida ( Phil.) Krasser.
Three epiphytic ferns showed preferences for large-sized trees, while
frequency of occurrence of three common vines was independent of host
tree size.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000184733000002,
  author = {Munoz, AA and Chacon, P and Perez, F and Barnert, ES and Armesto, JJ},
  title = {Diversity and host tree preferences of vascular epiphytes and vines in a
temperate rainforest in southern Chile}, journal = {AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY}, year = {2003}, volume = {51}, number = {4}, pages = {381-391}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/BT02070} }
Ortega-Solis, G., Diaz, I., Mellado-Mansilla, D., Tello, F., Moreno, R. and Tejo, C. Ecosystem engineering by Fascicularia bicolor in the canopy of the
South-American temperate rainforest
2017 FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
Vol. 400, pp. 417-428 
article DOI  
Abstract: Ecosystem engineers are organisms that modify habitats and resource
flows, they therefore could have a disproportionate impact on the
diversity of ecological communities. Evidence suggests that trash basket
epiphytes (TBE) can be considered ecosystem engineers of forest
canopies, due to their relationship with arboreal soil availability and
treetop communities. Here we evaluated whether the TBE Fascicularia
bicolor (Bromeliaceae), modulates temperature and humidity in the forest
canopy. We also investigated if this bromeliad is related with greater
arboreal soil accumulation and is associated to higher diversity of
other epiphytic plants and invertebrates in the canopy of the
South-American temperate rainforest (SATR), in Chile. We measured
temperature and humidity in ten trees within the forest before and after
the experimental addition of F. bicolor. We also related the presence of
F. bicolor with occurrence of soil macro fauna and other canopy dwelling
plants in a comparative field survey.
Temperature variability in the canopy was reduced by F. bicolor. Soil
availability was higher in sites with mats of F. bicolor. The richness
of vascular epiphytes was unaltered by the presence of F. bicolor, but
species composition differed between sites with and without mats on each
tree. At the group level, the cover of lichens and bryophytes was
greater in sites without F. bicolor, while vascular epiphytes show a
larger cover in sites with F. bicolor. The species richness of
invertebrates increased in treetop sites colonized by F. bicolor but
species composition was not different from soil in branch bifurcations.
Our results show that F. bicolor must be considered in forest management
practices to determine which trees must be logged, in order to preserve
the viability of populations of these key organisms in the treetops of
South American temperate rainforests. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights
reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000406732100041,
  author = {Ortega-Solis, Gabriel and Diaz, Ivan and Mellado-Mansilla, Daniela and
Tello, Francisco and Moreno, Ricardo and Tejo, Camila}, title = {Ecosystem engineering by Fascicularia bicolor in the canopy of the
South-American temperate rainforest}, journal = {FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT}, year = {2017}, volume = {400}, pages = {417-428}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2017.06.020} }
Parra, M.J., Acuna, K., Corcuera, L.J. and Saldana, A. Vertical distribution of Hymenophyllaceae species among host tree
microhabitats in a temperate rain forest in Southern Chile
2009 JOURNAL OF VEGETATION SCIENCE
Vol. 20(4), pp. 588-595 
article DOI  
Abstract: Question
Are differences in microhabitat preferences of co-occurring epiphytic
Hymenophyllaceae species (filmy ferns) correlated with differences in
ecophysiological responses to light availability and humidity in the
host tree?
Location
The Andean foothills in south-central Chile.
Methods
We evaluated the distribution pattern of nine filmy fern species in
microhabitats that differ in light availability and humidity in four
host tree species. A DCA was developed to assess Hymenophyllaceae
species microhabitat preference in terms of canopy openness (CO) and
relative humidity. We assessed whether differences in chlorophyll
content, maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), photosynthetic
capacity (A(max)), evapotranspiration (E) and instantaneous water use
efficiency (WUE) are consistent with any pattern.
Results
CO and relative humidity differed significantly with height in the host
trees. While CO increased with height in a host tree, relative humidity
decreased. DCA analysis showed that filmy fern species distribution
within and among trees was mainly explained by the relative humidity of
the microhabitat. Chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a/b ratio, A(max) and
E differed significantly among filmy fern species. A(max) and E were
correlated with axis 1 scores from the DCA analysis.
Conclusions
The vertical distribution and abundance of filmy fern species in Chilean
temperate rain forest seems to be closely related to the different
microhabitats offered by host trees. This pattern may reflect
interspecific differences in ecophysiological traits related both to
light availability and humidity. Our results suggest that humidity is
the main environmental factor driving functional responses and habitat
preferences of these filmy fern species.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000267755000002,
  author = {Parra, Maria J. and Acuna, Karina and Corcuera, Luis J. and Saldana,
Alfredo}, title = {Vertical distribution of Hymenophyllaceae species among host tree
microhabitats in a temperate rain forest in Southern Chile}, journal = {JOURNAL OF VEGETATION SCIENCE}, year = {2009}, volume = {20}, number = {4}, pages = {588-595}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2009.01078.x} }
Perez, C., Guevara, R., Carmona, M. and Armesto, J. Nitrogen mineralization in epiphytic soils of an old-growth Fitzroya
cupressoides forest, southern Chile
2005 ECOSCIENCE
Vol. 12(2), pp. 210-215 
article DOI  
Abstract: Epiphytic soils derive from organic matter accumulation on trunks and
canopy branches of large trees. We compared chemical and physical
properties, rates of net N mineralization, and bacterial biomass carbon
associated with epiphytic soils and the forest floor of an old-growth,
temperate forest dominated by the long-lived Fitzroya capressoides
(Cupressaceae) in Chiloe Island, southern Chile. Epiphytic soils had
lower density, higher moisture content, higher total carbon and nitrogen
contents, and lower pH than forest floor; however, these differences
were only slight. Microbial biomass and soil C/N ratios did not differ
between soil types. We estimated similar N mineralization rates in
epiphytic soil and in the forest floor, but there was a significant
interaction between time of the year and soil type, resulting from
higher N production in epiphytic soils in some months. Microbial net N
mineralization in the epiphytic layer contributed ca 6% of the internal
N circulation. Fitzroya trees may access these nutrients via
adventitious root uptake and leaching to the forest floor, thus
exploiting an alternative path of nutrient circulation in old-growth
forests.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000230239500007,
  author = {Perez, CA and Guevara, R and Carmona, MR and Armesto, JJ},
  title = {Nitrogen mineralization in epiphytic soils of an old-growth Fitzroya
cupressoides forest, southern Chile}, journal = {ECOSCIENCE}, year = {2005}, volume = {12}, number = {2}, pages = {210-215}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2980/i1195-6860-12-2-210.1} }
Pincheira-Ulbrich, J. Diversity patterns of climbing plants and vascular epiphytes in the
Valdivian rain forest of South America: a synthesis between 2000 and
2010
2011 PHYTON-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BOTANY
Vol. 80, pp. 9-18 
article  
Abstract: Knowledge about the diversity patterns of vascular epiphytes and vines
in the Valdivian rainforest of South America between 2000 and 2010 was
systematized. The method was based on the review of publications
available in four electronic databases using keywords. The results
showed 12 studies conducted in Chile and two in Argentina, mostly in
primary forests within protected areas. Research was carried out
essentially at the habitat level, although there were one study at a
landscape level and two reviews at a regional scale. The samples used
came from ground-based observations and only two studies accessed the
canopy of emergent trees. The most relevant findings showed that: (1)
diversity was greater in primary than secondary forests; (2) the
abundance of epiphytic ferns (Hymenophyllaceae) correlated positively
with the habitat moisture gradient; (3) climbing plants showed
differential tolerance to shade; (4) the diversity of both groups of
plants was positively correlated with the diameter of phorophytes, and
(5) the majority of vines and epiphytes showed selectivity for the
phorophyte species. In addition, richness of vascular epiphytes and
vines at a habitat scale ranged from 8 to 16 and 6 to 14 species,
respectively. Knowledge about the level of species interchange between
habitats is scarce in fragmented environments and at a landscape scale.
This knowledge must be prioritized in areas with high human pressure to
improve the conservation opportunity of this group of plants.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000299301200003,
  author = {Pincheira-Ulbrich, J.},
  title = {Diversity patterns of climbing plants and vascular epiphytes in the
Valdivian rain forest of South America: a synthesis between 2000 and
2010}, journal = {PHYTON-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BOTANY}, year = {2011}, volume = {80}, pages = {9-18} }
Pincheira-Ulbrich, J., Hernandez, C., Saldana, A., Pena-Cortes, F. and Aguilera-Benavente, F. Assessing the completeness of inventories of vascular epiphytes and
climbing plants in Chilean swamp forest remnants (vol 54, pg 458, 2016)
2016 NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF BOTANY
Vol. 54(4) 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000389142400001,
  author = {Pincheira-Ulbrich, J. and Hernandez, C. and Saldana, A. and Pena-Cortes,
F. and Aguilera-Benavente, F.}, title = {Assessing the completeness of inventories of vascular epiphytes and
climbing plants in Chilean swamp forest remnants (vol 54, pg 458, 2016)}, journal = {NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF BOTANY}, year = {2016}, volume = {54}, number = {4}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0028825X.2016.1230934} }
Pincheira-Ulbrich, J., Hernandez, C.E., Saldana, A., Pena-Cortes, F. and Aguilera-Benavente, F. Assessing the completeness of inventories of vascular epiphytes and
climbing plants in Chilean swamp forest remnants
2016 NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF BOTANY
Vol. 54(4), pp. 458-474 
article DOI  
Abstract: Plant species inventories provide the foundation for more complex
analytical studies and are the basis of monitoring programmes; however,
if they are to provide reliable information in the long term, their
level of completeness needs to be estimated. This work assessed the
completeness of inventories of climbing plants and vascular epiphytes in
swamp forest remnants of the Araucania region of south-central Chile,
which has been severely disturbed by agroforestry expansion. We sampled
30 sites using transects, with observations from ground level to a
height of 2.3 m up the trees. To assess the potential existence of
unrecorded species we drew rarefaction curves based on sample trees and
extrapolated them towards one of the most intensely sampled sites. We
then calculated the asymptotic species richness with the Chao 1
estimator. The results showed: (1) a total richness of 16 species of
epiphytes and 17 species of climbing plants; (2) the rarefaction curve
differentiated only two categories of sampling effort ('rich' and `poor'
sites) as a result of the substantial overlap of the confidence limits
at 95 and (3) the maximum richness estimated by Chao 1 was similar to
the richness observed in all the sites. We conclude that greater
sampling effort is required to obtain tighter statistical confidence
levels in the rarefaction curve; however, from a biological point of
view, the sampling effort achieved adequate representation of the
species richness at all the sites. Total richness of vascular epiphytes
and climbing plants was only slightly below values reported for much
larger areas of better-conserved forest in south-central Chile and
adjacent areas of Argentina. Finally, we found evidence that forest
fragmentation has more severe effects on species richness of vascular
epiphytes than on that of climbing plants.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000389142400007,
  author = {Pincheira-Ulbrich, Jimmy and Hernandez, Cristian E. and Saldana, Alfredo
and Pena-Cortes, Fernando and Aguilera-Benavente, Francisco}, title = {Assessing the completeness of inventories of vascular epiphytes and
climbing plants in Chilean swamp forest remnants}, journal = {NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF BOTANY}, year = {2016}, volume = {54}, number = {4}, pages = {458-474}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0028825X.2016.1218899} }
Pincheira-Ulbrich, J., Rau, J.R. and Smith-Ramirez, C. Vascular epiphytes and climbing plants diversity in an agroforestal
landscape in southern Chile: a comparison among native forest fragments
2012 BOLETIN DE LA SOCIEDAD ARGENTINA DE BOTANICA
Vol. 47(3-4), pp. 411-426 
article  
Abstract: Vascular epiphytes and climbing plants diversity in an agroforestal
landscape in southern Chile: a comparison among native forest fragments.
We compared the diversity of vines and vascular epiphytes among an
evergreen forest fragment (Laureliopsis philippiana y Eucryphia
cordifolia) and four fragments of secondary forest dominated for
Nothofagus obliqua in an agro-forestry matrix landscape localized in the
coastal range of Osorno, in Chile. Based on a sampling transects with
ground-based observations, we obtained the species richness, floristic
composition, frequency of occurrence (fo) and forest structure. The
results showed that: (1) the richness was higher in the evergreen forest
(19 species) and decreased in the fragments of N. obliqua (16 to 10
species), (2) the Hymenophyllaceae family (epiphytes) was the most
diverse group (10 species), and presented more fo in the evergreen
fragment, (3) vines increased their fo in the fragments of N. obliqua,
(4) four and five species were found only in evergreen forest and N.
obliqua, respectively, (5) floristic similarity ranged between 38% and
75 (6) the state of forest development varied among forest
communities. We conclude that changes in species diversity occur as a
result of changes in forest structure.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000313477000011,
  author = {Pincheira-Ulbrich, Jimmy and Rau, Jaime R. and Smith-Ramirez, Cecilia},
  title = {Vascular epiphytes and climbing plants diversity in an agroforestal
landscape in southern Chile: a comparison among native forest fragments}, journal = {BOLETIN DE LA SOCIEDAD ARGENTINA DE BOTANICA}, year = {2012}, volume = {47}, number = {3-4}, pages = {411-426} }
Promis, A., Bergh, G., Teresa Serra, M. and Cruz, G. Description of the vascular flora in the understory of a swamp forest
and in an anthropogenic Juncus procerus wet prairie in the valle del rio
Cisnes, Ayson Region, Chile
2013 GAYANA BOTANICA
Vol. 70(1), pp. 164-169 
article  
Abstract: The richness, abundance and density of vascular flora species were
evaluated in the understory of a swamp forest (BP) dominated by Luma
apiculata and in an anthropogenic Juncus procerus wet praire (PHJ). The
most diverse taxonomical groups were fern in BP and dycotiledon in PHJ.
Introduced species were only found in PHJ. Epiphytic hemicryptophytes
and climbing phanerophytes are indicator species for BP and
hemicryptophyes for PHJ.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000326002400017,
  author = {Promis, Alvaro and Bergh, Giselle and Teresa Serra, Maria and Cruz,
Gustavo}, title = {Description of the vascular flora in the understory of a swamp forest
and in an anthropogenic Juncus procerus wet prairie in the valle del rio
Cisnes, Ayson Region, Chile}, journal = {GAYANA BOTANICA}, year = {2013}, volume = {70}, number = {1}, pages = {164-169} }
Quilodran, C.S., Vasquez, R.A. and Estades, C.F. NESTING OF THE THORN-TAILED RAYADITO (APHRASTURA SPINICAUDA) IN A PINE
PLANTATION IN SOUTHCENTRAL CHILE
2012 WILSON JOURNAL OF ORNITHOLOGY
Vol. 124(4), pp. 737-742 
article DOI  
Abstract: We installed nest boxes for Thorn-tailed Rayaditos (Aphrastrura
spinicauda) and monitored their use in a Monterrey pine (Pinus radiata)
plantation in the Maule Region, southcentral.,Chile. Thirty-four
breeding pairs built nests in boxes, of which 75% began laying eggs.
Nest establishment began in early September and construction lasted 12.8
+/- 4.9 days (n = 23). Rayaditos used mainly pine needles, together with
mosses, epiphytes, herbs, and animal hair in their nests. Clutch size
ranged from two to four eggs (mode = 3) that were incubated for 15.8 +/-
1.2 days. Brood size negatively affected mass of nestlings, but was
positively related to mass of the parents. Adults had higher body mass
and built larger nests than those reported previously for the species on
Chiloe Island, where broods are larger and the incubation period is
shorter. The provision of artificial cavities allowed Thorn-tailed
Rayaditos to nest in the pine plantation. Nest boxes combined with other
management tools, such as maintaining snags and understory enhancement,
may be important factors in mitigation of negative effects of pine
plantations on secondary cavity-nesting birds. Received 18 February
2012. Accepted 7 June 2012.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000312285900010,
  author = {Quilodran, Claudio S. and Vasquez, Rodrigo A. and Estades, Cristian F.},
  title = {NESTING OF THE THORN-TAILED RAYADITO (APHRASTURA SPINICAUDA) IN A PINE
PLANTATION IN SOUTHCENTRAL CHILE}, journal = {WILSON JOURNAL OF ORNITHOLOGY}, year = {2012}, volume = {124}, number = {4}, pages = {737-742}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1676/1559-4491-124.4.737} }
Reyes, F., Zanetti, S., Espinosa, A. and Alvear, M. BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN VASCULAR EPIPHYTES SUBSTRATE FROM A TEMPERATE
FOREST OF CHILE
2010 REVISTA DE LA CIENCIA DEL SUELO Y NUTRICION VEGETAL
Vol. 10(2), pp. 126-138 
article  
Abstract: The temperate forests of south-central Chile belong to the association
Lapageria aextoxiconetum Oberdorfer vegetation, dominated by Aextoxicon
punctatum R. et P., elderly and multi-layered, where the strata are
emergent, dominant and co-dominant, shrub and herbaceous epiphytes. This
work is the first report of measurements of some biochemical properties
in samples from vascular epiphytes substrate in temperate forests. We
evaluated the most frequent ecological situations: bifurcated trees
(BT), dead standing trees (SDT) and medium gap border trees (MGBT), ES
were compared with the surrounding soil forest land (SS) as control. The
microbial biomass and enzyme activities of substrate were higher in ES
of BT, situation probably due to optimal micro-environmental conditions
(moisture and humidity, temperature, organic matter (OM) content and
nutrient availability); similarly, lower levels of activity were found
in ES in MGBT situation. We found a statistically significant
correlation (p <= 0.05) between evaluated microbial biomass and
enzymatic activities. Furthermore, the biochemical properties were
influenced by factors such as moisture, temperature, pH and OM content
and all of these factors correlated significantly (P <= 0.01) among
them. These results demonstrate a difference between ES and SS in BT
that should be explored to gain insights in understanding the processes
of decomposition using the natural microcosms that ES provides.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000281150200004,
  author = {Reyes, Francisco and Zanetti, Silvana and Espinosa, Alejandro and
Alvear, Marysol}, title = {BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN VASCULAR EPIPHYTES SUBSTRATE FROM A TEMPERATE
FOREST OF CHILE}, journal = {REVISTA DE LA CIENCIA DEL SUELO Y NUTRICION VEGETAL}, year = {2010}, volume = {10}, number = {2}, pages = {126-138} }
Reyes, F., Zanetti, S., Espinosa, A. and Alvear, M. BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN VASCULAR EPIPHYTES SUBSTRATE FROM A TEMPERATE
FOREST OF CHILE
2010 JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT NUTRITION
Vol. 10(2), pp. 126-138 
article DOI  
Abstract: The temperate forests of south-central Chile belong to the association
Lapageria aextoxiconetum Oberdorfer vegetation, dominated by Aextoxicon
punctatum R. et P., elderly and multi-layered, where the strata are
emergent, dominant and co-dominant, shrub and herbaceous epiphytes. This
work is the first report of measurements of some biochemical properties
in samples from vascular epiphytes substrate in temperate forests. We
evaluated the most frequent ecological situations: bifurcated trees
(BT), dead standing trees (SDT) and medium gap border trees (MGBT), ES
were compared with the surrounding soil forest land (SS) as control. The
microbial biomass and enzyme activities of substrate were higher in ES
of BT, situation probably due to optimal micro-environmental conditions
(moisture and humidity, temperature, organic matter (OM) content and
nutrient availability); similarly, lower levels of activity were found
in ES in MGBT situation. We found a statistically significant
correlation (p <= 0.05) between evaluated microbial biomass and
enzymatic activities. Furthermore, the biochemical properties were
influenced by factors such as moisture, temperature, pH and OM content
and all of these factors correlated significantly (P <= 0.01) among
them. These results demonstrate a difference between ES and SS in BT
that should be explored to gain insights in understanding the processes
of decomposition using the natural microcosms that ES provides.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000288498000004,
  author = {Reyes, Francisco and Zanetti, Silvana and Espinosa, Alejandro and
Alvear, Marysol}, title = {BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN VASCULAR EPIPHYTES SUBSTRATE FROM A TEMPERATE
FOREST OF CHILE}, journal = {JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT NUTRITION}, year = {2010}, volume = {10}, number = {2}, pages = {126-138}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-27912010000200004} }
Saldana, A., Parra, M.J., Flores-Bavestrello, A., Corcuera, L.J. and Bravo, L.A. Effects of forest successional status on microenvironmental conditions,
diversity, and distribution of filmy fern species in a temperate
rainforest
2014 PLANT SPECIES BIOLOGY
Vol. 29(3), pp. 253-262 
article DOI  
Abstract: The vertical distribution of Hymenophyllaceae species has been related
to microenvironmental variations around host trees. We addressed the
questions: Do the vertical microenvironmental conditions within forest
stands of differing successional statuses vary significantly? Does the
diversity of Hymenophyllaceae species differ between forest successional
statuses? Are the vertical distribution and diversity of
Hymenophyllaceae species related more to humidity or light availability?
Are there any interspecific differences in the desiccation tolerance of
these species which can be related to their vertical distribution? We
characterized the microhabitat conditions (vapor pressure deficit
[VPD], air relative humidity [RH], and light availability [PAR])
and the vertical distribution of Hymenophyllaceae species in host trees,
in both a secondary forest and an old-growth temperate rainforest in
Chile. Chlorophyll fluorescence was used to monitor the integrity of the
photosynthetic apparatus during desiccation experiments. The stand basal
area, tree height, and leaf area index were all significantly greater in
the old-growth forest stands, but VPD, RH, and PAR showed no significant
differences between the two forests. Both successional statuses showed
the same amount of filmy fern species in terms of both abundance and
diversity. In both successional statuses VPD and RH decreased while PAR
increased with the height of the hosts. Regardless of the forest's age,
abundance and diversity of filmy ferns were greater in microsites of
greater humidity and less light availability. Desiccation tolerance
differed significantly among Hymenophyllaceae species. The distribution
pattern could be better explained by the specific microenvironmental
requirements and desiccation tolerance rather than the forest's
successional status.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000341131700016,
  author = {Saldana, Alfredo and Parra, Maria J. and Flores-Bavestrello, Alejandra
and Corcuera, Luis J. and Bravo, Leon A.}, title = {Effects of forest successional status on microenvironmental conditions,
diversity, and distribution of filmy fern species in a temperate
rainforest}, journal = {PLANT SPECIES BIOLOGY}, year = {2014}, volume = {29}, number = {3}, pages = {253-262}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1442-1984.12020} }
Salinas, F. and Armesto, J.J. Regeneration niche of three epiphytic species of Gesneriaceae from
Chilean rainforests: implications for the evolution of growth habits in
Coronanthereae
2012 BOTANICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY
Vol. 170(1), pp. 79-92 
article DOI  
Abstract: Ecological and evolutionary studies of the epiphytic growth habit in
angiosperms are limited. In this article, we assess the relationship
between growth habit and regeneration niche in Coronanthereae
(Gesneriaceae) and discuss its implications for the evolution of
epiphytism in this lineage. In the temperate rainforest of southern
Chile, we quantified the vertical distribution and experimentally
examined the regeneration niche of three endemic species of
Coronanthereae. One species was a holoepiphyte, which was more frequent
in the upper canopy, and two species were secondary hemiepiphytes, which
decreased in abundance with tree height. Seed germination of the
holoepiphyte was higher on tree bark substrates and under open canopy
than on forest soil and in the shade. In contrast, seed germination of
both secondary hemiepiphytes did not differ between substrates (bark vs.
soil) or light conditions (light vs. shade). Seedling survival
percentage of secondary hemiepiphytes was higher on forest soil and
under a closed canopy, thus behaving as shade-tolerant species. In turn,
the holoepiphyte behaved as a shade-intolerant species. The
reconstruction of the ancestral growth habits and regeneration niches on
the inferred phylogenetic tree of Coronanthereae revealed that the
specialized regeneration niche of Sarmienta repens, characterized by
requirements of shade intolerance and germination on tree bark, was
coupled with the evolution of the holoepiphytic growth habit. We
conclude that differentiation in the regeneration niche is a key process
in the evolution of epiphytic growth habits in Coronanthereae. (c) 2012
The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society,
2012, 170, 7992.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000307386500008,
  author = {Salinas, Fernanda and Armesto, Juan J.},
  title = {Regeneration niche of three epiphytic species of Gesneriaceae from
Chilean rainforests: implications for the evolution of growth habits in
Coronanthereae}, journal = {BOTANICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY}, year = {2012}, volume = {170}, number = {1}, pages = {79-92}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2012.01256.x} }
Soler, R., Martinez Pastur, G., Vanessa Lencinas, M. and Rosenfeld, M. Variable retention management influences biomass of Misodendrum and
Usnea in Nothofagus pumilio southern Patagonian forests
2014 NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF BOTANY
Vol. 52(2), pp. 224-235 
article DOI  
Abstract: Variable retention systems (retention of some existing trees in
different densities along with significant elements of the original
forest after logging) aim to mitigate the impact of harvesting in native
temperate forests, improving biodiversity conservation in managed
stands. This study evaluates the effect of variable retention harvesting
on epiphytic lichens (Usnea barbata) and mistletoes (Misodendrum
punctulatum) in Nothofagus pumilio forests. The abundance of these
canopy-dwelling species can be estimated by measuring their litter fall.
We quantified mistletoe, lichen and tree litter fall monthly for 3
years. Tree and lichen biomasses were influenced by canopy cover, being
higher in primary forests than in harvested stands. However, aggregated
retention showed the highest mistletoe biomass production. Furthermore,
mistletoe biomass increased while lichen biomass decreased over the
years after harvesting. Variable retention was useful in maintaining
both lichen and mistletoe biomass after harvest, but aggregates were not
enough to maintain the original level of lichen populations. Forest
harvesting with variable retention generates positive (litter input) and
negative (decline of host growth) effects of mistletoes and epiphytic
lichens at community level, which should be evaluated during
conservation and management planning.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000338991500004,
  author = {Soler, Rosina and Martinez Pastur, Guillermo and Vanessa Lencinas, Maria
and Rosenfeld, Mauricio}, title = {Variable retention management influences biomass of Misodendrum and
Usnea in Nothofagus pumilio southern Patagonian forests}, journal = {NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF BOTANY}, year = {2014}, volume = {52}, number = {2}, pages = {224-235}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0028825X.2013.846918} }
Stanton, D.E., Huallpa Chavez, J., Villegas, L., Villasante, F., Armesto, J., Hedin, L.O. and Horn, H. Epiphytes improve host plant water use by microenvironment modification 2014 FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY
Vol. 28(5), pp. 1274-1283 
article DOI  
Abstract: 1. Epiphytes have the potential to modify the canopy environments in
which they grow. Accurately evaluating the impact of epiphytes can be
challenging, since plants without epiphytes may also otherwise differ
from host plants, and experimental removal is impractical and difficult
to replicate in many forests. 2. We studied the impacts of epiphytes
(primarily fruticose lichens and Tillandsia spp.) on host plants
(Eulychnia saint-pieana and Caesalpinia spinosa) in two fog ecosystems
in Chile (Pan de Azucar) and Peru (Atiquipa). These desert ecosystems
sustain very high epiphyte loads and depend heavily on fog-water inputs.
Using a combination of artificial substrates and epiphyte removals, we
show significant impacts of epiphytes on their host plants. 3. The
presence of epiphytes reduced throughfall volumes, reducing fog and
rainfall inputs to the soil beneath host plant canopies. 4. Soil
moisture loss rate was increased below cacti after removal of epiphytes
from sun-facing but not shade-facing branches. This suggests epiphyte
effects on hosts are microclimatic. 5. Epiphytes also buffered
temperature fluctuations and reduced daytime vapour pressure deficit. 6.
Epiphytes can have strong effects on host plant ecophysiology and forest
ecosystem processes, making them an important component for models and
studies of canopy environments.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000342615100023,
  author = {Stanton, Daniel E. and Huallpa Chavez, Jackelyn and Villegas, Luis and
Villasante, Francisco and Armesto, Juan and Hedin, Lars O. and Horn,
Henry}, title = {Epiphytes improve host plant water use by microenvironment modification}, journal = {FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY}, year = {2014}, volume = {28}, number = {5}, pages = {1274-1283}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12249} }
Taylor, A., Saldana, A., Zotz, G., Kirby, C., Diaz, I. and Burns, K. Composition patterns and network structure of epiphyte-host interactions
in Chilean and New Zealand temperate forests
2016 NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF BOTANY
Vol. 54(2, SI), pp. 204-222 
article DOI  
Abstract: Ecological networks are becoming increasingly used as a framework to
study epiphyte-host interactions. However, efforts to quantify the
properties of epiphyte-host networks have produced inconsistent results.
Epiphyte-host interactions in New Zealand and Chilean temperate forests
were quantified to test for non-random patterns in nestedness, negative
co-occurrences, number of links, and network specialisation. Results
showed that three out of five New Zealand networks were significantly
more nested than null model expectations, compared with just one out of
four Chilean networks. Epiphytes co-occurred more often than null model
expectations in one New Zealand network and one in Chile. In all cases,
the number of links maintained by each epiphyte and host species was
consistent with null model expectations. Lastly, two New Zealand
networks and one in southern Chile were significantly less specialised
than null model expectations, with all remaining networks returning low
specialisation scores. As such, aside from the tendency for greater
nestedness in New Zealand networks, most epiphyte species were
distributed on their host trees at random. We attribute the result of
nestedness in New Zealand to the abundance of large nest epiphytes
(Astelia spp. in particular), which may facilitate the sequential
colonisation of epiphyte species on developing host trees. The lack of
negative co-occurrences suggests that negative species interactions are
not an important determinant of species assemblage structure. Low
network specialisation scores suggest that epiphytes are selecting for
specific host traits, rather than specific host species for
colonisation. RESUMENLa aproximacion de redes ecologicas como marco para
estudiar las interacciones entre epifitas y hospederos ha ido en
aumento. Sin embargo, los esfuerzos para cuantificar las propiedades de
estas redes aun muestran resultados inconsistentes. Se cuantificaron las
interacciones entre epifitas y hospederos en bosques templados
Neozelandeses y Chilenos para determinar patrones no aleatorios de
anidamiento, co-ocurrencias negativas, numero de vinculos
yespecializacion de estas redes. Tres de las cinco redes de Nueva
Zelanda fueron significativamente mas anidadas que lo esperadopor el
modelo nulo, comparado con solo una de las cuatro redes de Chile. En
todos los casos el numero de vinculos mantenido por cada especie de
epifita y hospedero fue consistente con lo esperado por el modelo nulo.
Dos redes de Nueva Zelanda y una de Chile fueron significativamente
menos especializadas que lo esperado por el modelo nulo, con el resto de
las redes mostrando bajos valores de especializacion. Aparte de la
tendencia general de anidamiento en las redes de Nueva Zelanda, la mayor
parte de las especies de epifitas se distribuyen al azar entre los
arboles hospederos. Atribuimos el resultado de anidamiento en Nueva
Zelanda a la abundancia de grandes epifitas-nido (en particular Astelia
spp.), las cuales pueden facilitar la colonizacion secuencial de
epifitas en arboles en desarrollo. La ausencia de co-ocurrencias
negativas sugiere que las interacciones interespecificas no son un
determinante importante de la estructura del ensamble. La baja
especializacion a una determinada red de las epifitas, sugiere que para
su colonizacion estas seleccionan caracteristicas especificas en los
hospederos mas que especies de hospederos en particular.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000379825900007,
  author = {Taylor, A. and Saldana, A. and Zotz, G. and Kirby, C. and Diaz, I. and
Burns, K.}, title = {Composition patterns and network structure of epiphyte-host interactions
in Chilean and New Zealand temperate forests}, journal = {NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF BOTANY}, year = {2016}, volume = {54}, number = {2, SI}, pages = {204-222}, note = {8th Southern Connection Congress, Punta Arenas, CHILE, JAN, 2016}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0028825X.2016.1147471} }
Tejo Haristoy, C., Zabowski, D. and Nadkarni, N. Canopy Soils of Sitka Spruce and Bigleaf Maple in the Queets River
Watershed, Washington
2014 SOIL SCIENCE SOCIETY OF AMERICA JOURNAL
Vol. 78(1), pp. S118-S124 
article DOI  
Abstract: Canopy or arboreal soils develop from the accumulation and decomposition
of epiphytes on branches and in bifurcations of trees in tropical and
temperate rainforests. Canopy soils are important because they provide
habitat and water, and accumulate allochthonous nutrients for epiphytes
and their associated biota. This study characterized the chemical and
physical characteristics of canopy soils developed on Sitka spruce
[Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carriere] and bigleaf maple (Acer
macrophyllum Pursh) in an old-growth forest at the Queets River
watershed, Washington. Bigleaf maple canopy soils were dominated by
hemic horizons, had higher pH, N content, cation exchange capacity, and
extractable N levels relative to Sitka spruce canopy soils, which had
higher bulk density and C/N ratios. Compared with the forest floor,
canopy soils had lower total C, total N, and C/N ratio. The bigleaf
maple canopy soil was classified as a Typic Haplohemist, whereas the
Sitka spruce canopy soil was classified as a Typic Haplosaprist. The
main differences between these canopy soils are due to different inputs
of host tree litter and decomposition states of the two species. Canopy
soils in this ecosystem are enhancing the pool of C and N by 20 and
25 respectively, relative to the C and N pools of the forest floor.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000356789100012,
  author = {Tejo Haristoy, Camila and Zabowski, Darlene and Nadkarni, Nalini},
  title = {Canopy Soils of Sitka Spruce and Bigleaf Maple in the Queets River
Watershed, Washington}, journal = {SOIL SCIENCE SOCIETY OF AMERICA JOURNAL}, year = {2014}, volume = {78}, number = {1}, pages = {S118-S124}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2013.07.0300nafsc} }
Tejo, C.F., Zabowski, D. and Nadkarni, N.M. Total and epiphytic litter under the canopy of Acer macrophyllum in an
old-growth temperate rainforest, Washington State, USA
2015 CANADIAN JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH
Vol. 45(11), pp. 1654-1661 
article DOI  
Abstract: The amounts and ecological importance of epiphytic litterfall has often
been overlooked in forest ecosystem studies. However, epiphytes
participate in whole-ecosystem dynamics by capturing and retaining
nutrients from atmospheric sources and transferring these nutrients to
other ecosystem components. We quantified epiphytic litterfall under the
canopy of mature bigleaf maples (Acer macrophyllum Pursh) and compared
it with other litter components in an old-growth temperate rainforest in
Washington State. Total litterfall during one year was 4760 kg.ha(-1),
with the greatest contribution from bigleaf maple leaves. Of the total
litter input, 546 kg.ha(-1) consisted of epiphytic litter, equivalent to
12% of total fine litter input, the highest contribution of epiphyte
litterfall documented for this type of forest. Compared with other
studies in the Pacific Northwest, our estimations of conifer needle
inputs relate to the location of the littertraps. Bigleaf maple leaves
dominated carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) returns in litter; epiphytic
litterfall contributed 240 kg.ha(-1).year(-1) of C (similar to 11% of
total C inputs) and 5.7 kg.ha(-1).year(-1) of N (similar to 11% of
total N inputs) to the forest floor. Inputs of N from epiphytes and
bigleaf maple litter under the canopy of this tree could be important in
augmenting N in this old-growth ecosystem.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000363938900021,
  author = {Tejo, Camila F. and Zabowski, Darlene and Nadkarni, Nalini M.},
  title = {Total and epiphytic litter under the canopy of Acer macrophyllum in an
old-growth temperate rainforest, Washington State, USA}, journal = {CANADIAN JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH}, year = {2015}, volume = {45}, number = {11}, pages = {1654-1661}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2014-0492} }
Troncoso, P.A., Perez, C.A., Larrain, J. and Ardiles, V. The development of symbiotic nitrogen fixation along a primary
chronosequence in Santa Ines Island, Magellan Region, Chile
2013 REVISTA CHILENA DE HISTORIA NATURAL
Vol. 86(3), pp. 345-355 
article DOI  
Abstract: Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a key process in the recovery of
this essential element for living organism after catastrophic
disturbances, as the advance and retreat of glaciers had exhausted the
soil nitrogen (N) capital. The main objective of this work was to
analyze the levels of symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) associated to
the flora that covers the soil in a primary chronosequence developed
after consecutives glacier retreats in Santa Ines Island (53 degrees 45'
S), Magallanes region, occurred over the past 400 years. The flora of
soil that forms carpets on the forest floor of is composed primarily by
the angiosperm Gunnera magellanica Lam. and by a high diversity of
bryophytes. The SNF was estimated by the acetylene reduction assay.
Separate assays were performed for G. magellanica, a mixed sample of
bryophytes and for individual species of bryophytes. Generalized
regression models showed that the acetylene reducing activity rates
(ARA) and FSN did not relate significantly with site age, probably
because the availability of limiting factor such as N and phosphorus (P)
with opposite effects followed the same trend along the chronosequence.
The ARA was positive for seven of a total of thirteen dominant species
of bryophytes analyzed. Microscopic analysis of these species showed
that the colonies of cyanobacteria are localized endophitically on
cavities of Nothoceros endiviaefolius (Mont.) J. Haseg. and
epiphytically in hornwort species. Although the estimated FSN and ARA
rates showed no clear trend, N fixation levels remained high along the
chronosequence so we conclude that symbiotic associations are crucial
for ecosystem development.
BibTeX:
@article{ISI:000325442400011,
  author = {Troncoso, Paulina A. and Perez, Cecilia A. and Larrain, Juan and
Ardiles, Victor}, title = {The development of symbiotic nitrogen fixation along a primary
chronosequence in Santa Ines Island, Magellan Region, Chile}, journal = {REVISTA CHILENA DE HISTORIA NATURAL}, year = {2013}, volume = {86}, number = {3}, pages = {345-355}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-078X2013000300011} }